We have proposed a multi-fingered haptic palpation method using stiffness feedback actuators for simulating tissue palpation procedures in traditional and in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Soft tissue stiffness is simulated by changing the stiffness property of the actuator during palpation. For the first time, granular jamming and pneumatic air actuation are combined to realize stiffness modulation.
Li, M., Ranzani,T., Sareh, S., Seneviratne, L.D, Dasgupta, P., Wurdemann, H., Althoefer, K. (2014) Multi-Fingered Haptic Palpation utilizing Granular Jamming Stiffness Feedback Actuators, Smart Mater. Struct. 23 095007.