Complimentary Technologies

1. Hybrid stimulation/actuation of natural and artificial muscles for next generation human augmentation devices

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is the application of a low energy electrical signal to a particular muscle in human body to make it function better. The FES technology was originally used to develop neuroprostheses to substitute impaired functions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke and other neurological disorders. FES also can help patients with droped foot, or can be integrated with common exercise devises such as indoor rowing or cycling machines.


FES can potentially help able-bodied individuals if the stimulation of natural muscles is combined with the actuation of artificial muscles integrated inside wearables to develop the next generation of human augmentation devices with higher capabilities! 

Relevant publications on FES


Gharooni, S., Sareh, S. and Tokhi, M.O. (2007) Development of FES-rowing Machine with Quadriceps Stimulation and Energy Storing Device, 12th Annual Conference of the International FES Society, Philadelphia, USA.


Sareh, S., Andrews, Brian J; Green, Matthew and Poulton, Adrian S (2008) Control strategies adopted by elite FES rowers.In: 13th Annual Conference of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society, 21-25 Sep 2008, Freiburg, Germany.


Sareh, S., Andrews, B. J., Gharooni, S,  Tokhi, M. O. (2008) Compliant control of FES-rowing with energy store and release mechanism. Proceedings of CLAWAR, Portugal, pp. 282-288, World Scientific Publishing.